Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Qualifications to Become a Member of the Roman Senate

Qualifications to Become a Member of the Roman Senate In historical fiction members of the Roman Senate or young men who dodge their civic responsibilities but who are senatorial material are rich. Did they have to be? Were there property or other qualifications to become a member of the Roman Senate? The answer to this question is one that I need to repeat more often: Ancient Roman history spanned two millennia and over that time, things changed. Several modern historical fiction mystery writers, like David Wishart, are dealing with the early part of the Imperial Period, known as the Principate. Property Requirements Augustus instituted a property requirement for senators. The sum he set it at was, at first, 400,000 sesterces, but then he raised the requirement to 1,200,000 sesterces. Men who needed help meeting this requirement were at this time given grants. Should they mismanage their funds, they were expected to step down. Prior to Augustus, however, the selection of senators was in the hands of the censors and before the institution of the office of censor, selection was by the people, kings, consuls, or consular tribunes. The senators selected were from the wealthy, and generally from those who had already held a position as magistrate. In the period of the Roman Republic, there were 300 senators, but then Sulla increased their number to 600. Although the tribes selected the original men to fill the added ranks, Sulla increased the magistracies so there would be ex-magistrates in the future to warm the senate benches. Number of Senators When there was a surplus, censors trimmed the excess. Under Julius Caesar and the triumvirs, the number of senators increased, but Augustus brought the number back down to Sullan levels. By the third century A.D. the number may have reached 800-900. Age Requirement Augustus appears to have changed the age at which one could become senator, reducing it from perhaps 32 to 25. Roman Senate References Seating Space in the Roman Senate and the Senatores PedariiLily Ross Taylor and Russell T. ScottTransactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association Vol. 100, (1969), pp. 529-582A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, by Sir William SmithA Summary of the Roman Civil Law, by Patrick Mac Chombaich de Colquhoun

Friday, November 22, 2019

Famous Quotes from Margaret Thatcher

Famous Quotes from Margaret Thatcher The Iron Lady of British politics, Margaret Thatcher was the longest continuously serving prime minister since 1827. Her conservative politics led to the implementation of such radical policies as the poll tax. Quotes by Margaret Thatcher We want a society where people are free to make choices, to make mistakes, to be generous and compassionate. This is what we mean by a moral society; not a society where the state is responsible for everything, and no one is responsible for the state. The younger generation doesnt want equality and regimentation, but opportunity to shape their world while showing compassion to those in real need. Economics are the method; the object is to change the soul. In politics if you want anything said, ask a man. If you want anything done, ask a woman. Any woman who understands the problems of running a home will be nearer to understanding the problems of running a country. Ive got a womans ability to stick to a job and get on with it when everyone else walks off and leaves it. It may be the cock that crows, but it is the hen that lays the eggs. The womans mission is not to enhance the masculine spirit, but to express the feminine; hers is not to preserve a man-made world but to create a human world by the infusion of the feminine element into all of its activities. I owe nothing to Womens Lib. The battle for womens rights has been largely won. Being powerful is like being a lady. If you have to tell people you are, you arent. The wisdom of hindsight, so useful to historians and indeed to authors of memoirs, is sadly denied to practicing politicians. There is no such thing as Society. There are individual men and women, and there are families. As God once said, and I think rightly... If you just set out to be liked, you would be prepared to compromise on anything at any time, and you would achieve nothing. I love argument, I love debate. I dont expect anyone just to sit there and agree with me, thats not their job. I always cheer up immensely if an attack is particularly wounding because I think, well, if they attack one personally, it means they have not a single political argument left. If my critics saw me walking over the Thames they would say it was because I couldnt swim. Im extraordinarily patient provided I get my own way in the end. To wear your heart on your sleeve isnt a very good plan; you should wear it inside, where it functions best. Standing in the middle of the road is very dangerous; you get knocked down by the traffic from both sides. To me, consensus seems to be the process of abandoning all beliefs, principles, values, and policies. So it is something in which no one believes and to which no one objects. U-turn if you want to. The ladys not for turning. You may have to fight a battle more than once to win it. What is success? I think it is a mixture of having a flair for the thing that you are doing; knowing that it is not enough, that you have got to have hard work and a certain sense of purpose. Look at a day when you are supremely satisfied at the end. its not a day when you lounge around doing nothing; its when youve had everything to do and youve done it. I am in politics because of the conflict between good and evil, and I believe that in the end good will triumph. After almost any major operation, you feel worse before you convalesce. But you do not refuse the operation. Do you think you would ever have heard of Christianity if the Apostles had gone out and said, I believe in consensus? And what a prize we have to fight for: no less than the chance to banish from our land the dark divisive clouds of Marxist socialism. You cannot have the dream of building up your own fortune by your own hopes, your own hands, and your own British guts. Democratic nations must try to find ways to starve the terrorist and the hijacker of the oxygen of publicity on which they depend. Let our children grow tall, and some taller than others if they have it in them to do so. A world without nuclear weapons would be less stable and more dangerous for all of us. You dont tell deliberate lies, but sometimes you have to be evasive. The government has failed the nation. It has lost credibility and it is time for it to go.   (just before her win in 1979) All attempts to destroy democracy by terrorism will fail. It must be business as usual. Europe will never be like America. Europe is a product of history. America is a product of philosophy. We lost 255 of our best young men. I felt every one.  (about the Falklands War) I wouldnt want to be prime minister; you have to give yourself 100 percent. It will be years- and not in my time- before a woman will lead the party or become prime minister.  (1974) I hope to go on and on. There is so much still to do.  (just before winning a third term) I have no wish to retire for a very long time. I am still bursting with energy.  (just before winning a third term) You need quite good shock absorbers and a sense of humor to be the Prime Ministers child. Quotes About Margaret Thatcher She approaches the problems of our country with all the one-dimensional subtlety of a comic-strip.   –  Denis Healey Attila the Hen.   –  Clement Freud In Margaret Thatchers view, her sex is an irrelevancy, and she is annoyed by people who make too much of a fuss over it.   –  Allan Mayer, biographer Margaret Thatchers great strength seems to be the better people know her, the better they like her. But, of course, she has one great disadvantage- she is a daughter of the people and looks trim, as the daughters of the people desire to be. Shirley Williams has such an advantage over her because shes a member of the upper-middle class and can achieve that kitchen-sink-revolutionary look that one cannot get unless one has been to a really good school.   –  Rebecca West For the past few months, she has been charging about like some bargain basement  Boadicea.   –  Denis Healey Thatchers impatience is undiminished. Head thrust forward, purse in hand, she marches on, pursuing her crusade to put the great back into Great Britain.   –   Los Angeles Times, about her third term When Mrs. Thatcher says she has a nostalgia for Victorian values I dont think she realizes that 90 percent of her nostalgia would be satisfied in the Soviet Union.   –   Peter Ustinov Shes never seen an institution she doesnt want to bash with her handbag.   –  Anthony Bevins Although a populist, she is the ultimate argument against the contention that a political leader needs, in her person, to be unpopular.   –  Hugh Young, biographer The thought that she might not be right has never crossed Mrs. Thatchers mind. It is a strength in a politician.   –  Labor Party deputy leader Ray Hattersley Thatchers memoirs are essential for an understanding of her time because they capture all the qualities of her character and, inevitably, some of her defects as well. They are lucid, opinionated, self-assured, wide-ranging and indispensable.   –  Henry Kissinger Reality hasnt really intervened in my mothers life since the seventies.   –  Carol Thatcher, Margaret Thatchers daughter The biggest story of 1982 was the Falklands war. The second biggest also involved my mother... and me.   –  Mark Thatcher, Margaret Thatchers son, about his disappearance in 1982 during an automobile race I dont pretend that Im anything but an honest-to-God right-winger- those are my views and I dont care who knows em.   –  Denis Thatcher in 1970 about himself I think I have become a bit of an institution- you know, the sort of thing people expect to see around the place.   –  Margaret Thatcher about herself

Thursday, November 21, 2019

American indian Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

American indian - Essay Example us people, the descendants that remained from the genocide that occurred during the 1800’s, have been supplanted to distant outposts of despair called reservations. During the late 1700’s trappers established trading posts which initiated business relationships with the native population. This new relationship introduced tribal members to firearms which aided them while hunting or defending themselves. The association also brought smallpox which devastated the tribes’ population. The trading posts offered provisions outside of what was supplied in nature and enhanced the tribal economies which were previously tied directly to following the buffalo herds. Otherwise, buffalo provided almost everything the Indians needed including food, clothes, weapons and shelter until they were nearly hunted into extinction in the 1880’s, forcing the Indians to depend upon the white man for trade. From the first landing of the Europeans in America to the present, Indians have desperately attempted to retain their land and culture. However, as there was then, there are now some Indians who learned the white mans’ customs well enough to use this knowledge as an advantage benefiting both personal and tribal interests. Throughout the history of the nation, Indians have learned to speak English well enough to articulate their beliefs, art, folklore and culture to those outside the Indian reservation. It is because of this effort to at least partially assimilate into white society that Indian culture, religion and traditions have become of interest and widely respected among mainstream Americans. Some have become good students of capitalism as evidenced by the success of the casinos (Hoxie, 1992). A number of Indians have gone to great lengths to be equally adept in both Indian and non-Indian cultures over the past quarter century. These individuals have been able to express the concerns of tribal society at the congressional and judicial level thus positively

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Depends Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Depends - Research Paper Example In 1949, Rich DeVos and Jay Andel became distributors and in 1958, they began to teach others on how to build their own businesses as network marketers to fulfill their dreams. They then broadened their product line and set up a company called American Way Association, which later came to be known as Amway. Before the end of 20th century, more than 3three million people in over eighty countries belonged to the Amway network (Ziglar & Hayes, 2001, pg 56). Network marketing is a network of people who have access to a range of products that are distributed through that network. The people can buy these products for personal use or sell them to others, thereby expanding the network by inviting others to join the network and over time, the volume of goods being distributed increase. Along the way, a portion of the profits on these products are paid to distributors, the down-line gives regular income in reality. The industry has experienced an image problem in the past because there were not systems and professional codes of conduct, and some operators used pyramid selling disguised as network marketing ((Griffiths, et al , 2008, Pg 1). Network marketing is emerging over the world as a viable and credible method of reaching buyers, which is cost effective as compared to the traditional retailing methods. Today almost everything in the world can be sold through network marketing including health supplements (Christen et al, 2007, pg 2). The emergence of internet has made it possible for network marketing to emerge as the mainstream marketing. The industry is becoming mature with professional marketing. It is an excellent way of entering into business enabling each person to enjoy fruits of their labor and solid passive income stream and residual income. Previously people viewed it as a side job that gives extra income, but now it gives opportunity to establish a business that will continue to be the main source of income. The industry is emerging as one

Saturday, November 16, 2019

World Music Industry †A Background Essay Example for Free

World Music Industry – A Background Essay There are three major segments in the world music industry; the industry that deals in the recorded music, the industry that is involved in the broadcasting of the already recorded music and the industry that attends to live performances. There are other less significant segments which are concerned with the broadcast rights for live performances and so on. Revenue is generated at each of these stages of the value chain. The earning of the revenue starts with a composer and lyricist with a song written and composed. In some cases the lyricist will sell the music on his own or he may decide to sell the rights may be transferred to another party. Then the song is played by the performers and at this point the revenues start flowing from two different directions – one from the performance recorded in a studio and the other from the live performances. In this process there are certain costs incurred which makes the presence of the companies specialized in the recording business as a prerequisite for channelizing the music performed. These costs include: Cost of rent for studio time and recording equipments Professional service charges payable for the sound engineers, technicians and operators Cost of transferring the recordings to tapes or compact discs and Cost of distributing the music as saleable commodities Since these costs are very high it is not possible to complete the value chain without the participation of these high profile companies. Usually these recording companies sign a contract with the performers. Under the contract the performer agrees to produce a certain number of recordings. The performer also agrees to take part in the promotion of the music product and is also under an obligation not to take part in recordings with other companies during the contract period. The record company undertakes to incur the cost of â€Å"producing, duplicating, packaging, distributing and marketing† of the products. The record companies distribute the products to the retailers who further sells to the consumers. In this value chain the authorized listeners who purchase the music product by paying the specified charges as remuneration to the copyright holders share their copy of the product with other listeners who do not make any payment for listening to the music. Traditionally the occasions on which the copying of the music was done were less which was in an informal way by making illegal tapes to share with friends and relatives. In this case there will be no earnings for any party in the value chain including for the â€Å"publishers, performers, recording companies and retailers†. There may not be any revenue arising for the person who has purchased the product legally and this depends on whether he charges for the copies he makes for the use of his friends. With the rapid changed in technology, the traditional market for the music was changing its dependence from cassettes, LPs, singles, compact discs, mini discs, MP3 and DVDs. These changes in the selling media have acted as strong barriers to the new entrants in to the market due to the reasons like: The international distribution network had proved very capital intensive involving huge investments. Despite the large investments, there was always the risk that the network must suit to the sudden changes in the customers’ demand. This often necessitated the trading off of international rights to music to international distribution as a measure to avoid the risk of change in preferences. (Kretschmer et al. , 1999). There were large costs associated with the marketing of the music worldwide. Firms had to incur marketing expenditure running in to millions of dollars in this respect. This is evident from the fact that releasing chart-bound albums have resulted in huge marketing costs in the national markets of UK and Germany. The composition of the products is so vulnerable that sometimes as low as 10 percent of the music products would account for almost 90 percent of the turnover and nobody could really assess the reasons for the success of certain products. (Caves, 2000) The competition from large players from other industries like consumer electronics, television and other media, entertainment and telecommunication industries using latest technologies of digital and networking also act as a barrier for new firms entering the music products market in the traditional set up. Examples of such organizations include the Time Warner, Disney, and Sony etc.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

play :: essays research papers

Characters: Jessica Berman-(Main Character) Recently started smoking pot and kind of paranoid. Smart girl, 17 year old senior in high school, as far as her parents can tell she is a good girl, she has never gotten into trouble in her entire life. Marissa Kramer- an aged veteran in the pot scene. She is outgoing, wild and carefree. 20 years old, a sophomore in college and her parents are well aware, but not approving of all of her bad habits. Mary Flood- Police officer, Obviously the one in charge, training her new partner what to do. Brian Luckman- The actual arresting officer. New to the job, not quite confident in himself; on the quieter side. Andrew Berman-Jessica’s father. Pretty strict but does not often yell Jonathan Kramer- Marissa’s father, a bit mean spirited, likes to joke a lot, but has a bad temper. Scene 1: Characters-Jessica, Marissa and Mary Setting- Glencoe Police Station, The two girls have been arrested for possession of marijuana Mary: Ok girls.... (All three girls giggle) Mary: I’m going to take care of a few things, I’ll be right back. Mary gathers the papers in her hands and leaves the room Marissa: She is so nice! Jessica: I know, I wonder if maybe she’ll just let me stay here for a night Marissa: I’m sure it could be arranged, do you mind if I ask why though? Jessica: I just am thinking it would have to be the safest place for me once my parents find out.. It can’t be so bad, free food, a place to sleep. The clothing isn’t that great, but I’m sure eventually I would adjust. Marissa: Yeah, that’s a good plan, I’m sure a little north shore girl like you could last 10 minutes in prison. Jessica: Hey, I could too. How hard could it really be? Marissa: Haven’t you ever seen Oz? Jessica rolls her eyes at Marissa Marissa: What! I was kidding! Jessica: This is really neither the time nor the place. Marissa: Sorry... (mumbles) just trying to ease the tension Mary walks back into the room with a phone in her hand Mary: Here Jessica, you want to try your parents again? Mary hands Jessica the phone Jessica: Thanks. Everyone pauses a second as we wait for Jessica’s parents to answer the phone, however, she cannot get a hold of them Jessica: No one’s home Mary: Do they have a cell phone you could try them on? Jessica: Yeah, one sec. Everyone pauses again as Jessica once again tried to contact her parents.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Enlightenment Values In Europe Essay

The focal point of this paper is to evaluate and analyze the reasons behind the opposition to enlightenment values in Europe between the mid-18th and mid 20th centuries and who identify the section of the society that objected to progress, science, reason, liberty, happiness, etc. It can well be stated that the main aspect of this enlightenment was chiefly based on openness to religion, racism and civil rights along with freedom of thought process. These are all highly acclaimed values of today but back in mid-18th and mid 20th centuries, which are stated as Modern society, there were enough opposition in this context and this opposition was mainly economical. The idea of Modern Society is more of a concept than actuality. For this reason it is essential to define Modern Society. There are several notions regarding the concept of modern Society but most acceptable is the period dating from 1800s. Therefore, it is obvious that the era after 1800 (specifically after Industrial revolution) could be termed as Modern. However, when conceptualized, it can be stated there are several distinguishing features. It can well be stated that the industrial revolution brought the concept of modernism into existence during the mid-18th century. The most distinctive features of Modern society could be enumerated as Universality, development of Political thought, advent of technology and science, different inventions, approach towards Arts, Specified Cultures, distinctive warfare and industry. There are several social and economic factors that make the Modern society different from the Pre Modern Society. These social and economic factors are development of concepts like secularization, decontextualization, totalitarianism, mechanization, democratization, centralization, hierarchical organization, individualism, linear progression, homogenization, diversification, , hybridization, unification, industrial society, reductionism, , universalism, subjectivism, alienation, rationalization, and bureaucracy making the Modern society a complex and intricate civilization. Another distinctive feature of Modern society from its Pre modern counterpart is that during the modern era the advent of capital as a means of power came into existence. Previously this place was occupied by land in general. Alongside the advent of capital one of the most interesting feature that came into existence was the high volume of goods movement at a given state of time. In the Pre modern Society this phenomenon was unimaginable and Modern society only made it possible with help of capital and industrialization. (Kar, 2006) Yet another interesting feature of the Modern society is the availability of information. This became more easily available due to development of roads and other transportation and similar communication systems that made information abundant. Formerly, the areas that were separated by geographical barriers were broken down after the Pre modern Society and thus people became more aware of things happening around them. However, it should be taken into account that one of the most distinguishable aspects of modern society is its attitude towards sexuality and marriage. Given the many problems that are associated with marriage, it is not so surprising that many young people in Modern societies- which, to a great extent, now values individual fulfillment over traditions – have become disillusioned with the institution of marriage. This has resulted in the surging of non-traditional social structures. This could be termed as an extended approach of freedom of sexuality that flourished in the latter stages as one of the aspect of the civil right movements. This was predominantly an economy related factor as the voting rights of women and human rights of colored population were fallout of payment equality and right of work. All these factors instigated a complete openness to a number of aspects that was not only seen as immoral during the earlier period but also deem as sacrilege. It is obvious a section of the society was not in favor of the changes that were going around. The problem with these traditionalists was more economical than anything else. The lack of devotion towards the concept of God certainly displease the church as lesser interest in religion resulted into lesser amount of revenue and lower power in the sociopolitical perspective. The medieval period had the church at the center of all political and social structure and it gained huge authority over every aspect of life. Industrialization and economic independence certainly constricted the power and jurisdiction of the aspects of church and religion and thus made the religious authorities extremely unhappy about the proceedings. It was no surprise that the church openly opposed the progression of the European society. It was during this time slavery was banned first in United Kingdom and then the abolition was practiced all over Europe. This also was subjected to protests from certain part of the society, particularly from the commercial agricultural product manufacturers. These were the chief population that supported slavery in the different colonies of the Asia, Africa and Latin America under the imperialist banners of countries like UK, Germany, Spain, Portugal and France. Abolition of slavery was a huge attack on their profit margin and no wonder they protested with social and political influence and sometimes with financial and brute forces. (Lamb, 2004) The concept of civil rights developed as a logical fallout of these aspects. People were becoming aware of their position in the society through better mode of education and communication systems. The general mass was able to see the misgivings of the upper classes towards the rest of the population and identified the problem parts of the system and thus started to look for solution. The next step was rights for further participation into political arena and manifestation of political rights. Labor unrest and labor movement became a regular feature of the 19th century Europe and particularly in UK. These were movements that influenced the economical stability of the patricians of the society and hardly any of them was willing to part with their profit margin with the labors without a fight. Thus opposition in this case too was evident. It could also be stated that all the development of the era started from the openness of the thought process. The ultimate result was the combined force of religion and patricians worked overtime to resist this improvement of human dignity but eventually failed. King, 2006) In conclusion it can well be said that the driving force of history is predominantly economy and it is the different aspects and approach towards economy that give rise to conflicts and revolutions. It was true during the time of the crusades and it certainly relevant to the reasons behind the opposition to enlightenment values in Europe between the mid-18th and mid 20th centuries and objection of certain parts of the society against the aspects of progress, science, reason, l iberty and happiness.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Reality Shows Should Be Banned Essay

The main essence of reality shows is to put ordinary people in a social confined setting with extraordinary environment and activities with the aim of entertaining audiences with the illusion that what is going on is not scripted nor rehearsed. Most reality shows attempt to convince the audience that the participants of the show are being pushed to their physical, emotional or physiological limits in order to complete a specific task or attain a certain goal of which audience cheer on their favorite participant. With the change in times and technology most reality shows have gone over board and have forgotten the basic concept of reality shows and are now focusing more on entertainment than reality that has lead to increase in sexual exposure, humiliation and immorality. Reality shows have lost their way from original series like survivor to the new mediocre series of two celebrities living in a farm yard for a week. Reality TV has joined the ranks of day time entertainment and has lost the spark of spontaneous originality from other forms of scripted entertainment. Additionally, the most famous reality shows worldwide are big brother and Idols; these two are examples of scripted and well rehearsed reality shows. In the just concluded episode of idols a judge was dared to sing out of the blue and it so happened just by â€Å"coincidence† that the band started playing a song which the judge joined in emphatically without hesitation. The crowed cheered and applauded for the â€Å"unexpected† performance by the judge. Such reality T.V. shows give viewers and more so children false hope of a â€Å"happily ever after† reality were heroes and heroines live thus insulting the intelligence of the viewers. In the case of big brother viewers are subjected to sex as a form of entertainment. Relationships formed in the big brother house give the participant a better chance of winning the competition and increase his/her ratings thus the audience spends time and money voting for the participant so they can enjoy seeing the participants relationship grow. And due to the full disclosure nature of the show all activities are broadcasted and shown live on our T.V. sets exposing and encouraging our youths, young adults and children to sex, immorality and promiscuous behaviors. Furthermore, the common comic saying â€Å"its funny until someone gets hurt, then it’s hilarious† comes to life in most reality shows. Producers of reality shows capitalize  on the demise and misfortunes of participants. When a contestant falls down or gets hurt in anyway it is taken as a form of entertainment or comedy not knowing the humiliation and psychological trauma they instill in the participant. Examples of such shows are â€Å"show me the funny† â€Å"Real T.V.† and â€Å"Fear factor†. Show me the funny capitalizes on bloopers of home made videos which show family member having accidents such as hitting each other being bitten by a snake or having a ball hit them on their faces. Turning such perilous or even fatal accidents to o form of humor encourages children to view violence and accidents as vivacious events and not the precarious activities they are. Producers also capitalize on the eviction or the inability of a participant to complete a certain assignment. The humiliation and reaction of a participant being evicted or accepting defeat is a high point of most reality T.V. which is morally and ethically wrong. The failure of a fellow human being should be frowned upon and not celebrated. 2) Here are plenty of reality shows which are being shown on television channels world wide, in which one can see lots of aspirants taking to the stunts and heroic acts as they want to win the coveted title and they did some shots which amaze the audiances and keep them on their tender nooks, its also done to increase the rating of the channel in the tele shows. There are plenty of reality shows which are being shown on television channels world wide, in which one can see lots of aspirants taking to the stunts and heroic acts as they want to win the coveted title and they did some shots which amaze the audiences and keep them on their tender nooks, its also done to increase the rating of the channel in the tele shows. I am not sure if they are there in your part of the world, channels like Sony and Zee TV they show lot of enthusiasm in such things. The weird things they shown on the small screen are hair raising and put a lot of questions in viewers minds as to such things can be accomplished in real life or not. But the stunt mania grips the minds of innocent public and kids alike. They all want feats and also want to show off to their genre of friends and foes. In the process they might hurt themselves badly. Although there are several reports of teen-aged children being hurt in the process of macho man image building but to no avail as the generation is fast and furious, they just want their way and life to be left to them. I am not sure about consequences and impact  they could have but it is for sure, every one wants his part of fame and attention in public, for we are mortal beings and success is our ambition in life. Effect on teenagers Social cognitive theory suggests that meaningful sources of identity can be discovered by people in their teens who feel â€Å"connected† to what they’re viewing. Thus, when attempting to understand media’s role in the development of teenagers, it is crucial to be aware of the time they devote to their shows like reality television due to this strong influence[48] America’s Next Top Model is often criticized for it’s portrayal of women and poor body image. When faced with the image of a thin, beautiful, successful models, young girls may feel inferior, leading to low self-esteem and eating disorders. Likewise, Jersey Shore is denounced for it’s representation of being a single, young adult. Young people idolize the show’s cast, making them susceptible to imitate their actions, such as promiscuity, violence, and binge drinking.[citation needed]

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Overview Essays

Overview Essays Overview Essay Overview Essay Organizations which adopt technological innovations in order to capitalize on their core competencies are called high-technology organizations (cited in Laudon Traver, 2007). Strategic management of high-technology organizations involves a constant process of managing change because the need is one of implementing a continuous improvement program by automating existing business processes. As a result high-technology organizations go through a constant process of business process reengineering. Existing business processes are reengineered to capitalize on technological innovations. Embedding technological innovations into existing business processes is not an easy task because the need is one of ensuring strategic alignment between business strategies and technology strategies. There is no doubt that technological innovations can save costs by streamlining the different business processes. However there are challenges to implementing these technological innovations and that is why, w hen it comes to managing high technology organizations, there is a critical need for the management to create an organizational culture which values strategic change.Case briefThe issue of the case is GE’s migration to the technological innovation of conducting business operations online. The case highlights Welch’s leadership as the critical factor in GE’s transformation as a high-technology organization. When Welch became CEO, he immediately set out to change the organizational culture of the company by streamlining and redefining its processes, by developing the people and by renewing its strategies. Nearing retirement, he was still a stranger to the business potential of the Internet until he saw the light while on vacation. Upon returning he immediately launched the e-business initiative. GE Plastics had already started an e-business initiative on its own. However Welch’s initiative speeded up the transition. GE Plastics served as an example for the other business units. Dissemination of information in the company was facilitated by a regular series of meetings and discussion forums round the year. Transferable best practices were researched and applied and through this process GE evolved from selling online to buying online to conducting its internal operations online. GE Plastics was the success story as it targeted conducting 90% of its transactions online. However, given the massive size of GE at the time it was implementing the e-business initiative, managing change was a complex task. The case illustrates the organizational culture that was GE’s number one enabling capability in managing the structural change of migrating to Internet-age competitiveness.GE’s capabilitiesCapabilities are the basis on which an organization builds its competitive advantage and in this respect one of the most important capabilities at GE was its environment which promoted a continuous process of strategic change. Capabilities lo se their value if they are reproducible by competitors. Therefore business organizations strive to develop core competencies which make its operations unique in terms of efficient and effective resource allocation. The challenge for the management in this respect is to develop the kind of core competencies which competitors cannot copy. This was the area in which GE had one of its most important capabilities: the area of organizational culture. One of the most important cultural characteristics at GE was the spirit of innovation. The management and the employees at GE were always collecting information on the existing business processes and disseminating it throughout the organization so that best practices could be identified and embedded in all business processes. The competitive advantage that resulted from this process of structural transformation was sustainable because competitors could not possibly replicate the cultural mindset that made the continuous improvement process wo rk at GE. If GE’s capabilities had included a collection of automated business functions, then the resultant competitive advantage would not be sustainable because competitors would soon automate their business functions as well. But since GE’s capabilities were based upon software, people and their intellectual capital which took years to develop, and not hardware, its competitive advantage was sustainable. The spirit of learning and growth that characterized the organizational culture at GE was the bedrock on which was built its other capabilities, such as customer-oriented business processes and the forward-looking performance measurement system. These capabilities built a sustainable competitive advantage by capitalizing on an organizational culture of boundaryless information transfer which in turn facilitated transfer of best practices from one business unit to another. As a result of this continuous process of benchmarking in terms of resource allocation, capabi lities such as customer focus or performance management constantly evolved to build a sustainable competitive advantage.Welch emphasized building a social architecture which could capitalize on the capabilities that GE possessed. In this he focused on developing the people, redefining the processes and revising the strategies. Even though Welch started out as CEO by eliminating nearly 100,000 positions, his focus was always on bringing the best of out his people. In this he invested a considerable level of resources in the Crotonville education center so that managers and their subordinates received training of strategic value. Welch also redefined processes by eliminating bureaucracy and in the process he created the sort of organizational culture which was intolerant of bureaucracy. He encouraged discussions between representations from different business units of the company. Implementation of the six sigma program and diversification into product services were some of the strate gies that GE implemented under Welch’s leadership. Welch used these revised strategies and processes to build and reinforce GE’s capabilities.Competitive advantage in internet-based businessOne of the strategies that Welch followed in revitalizing the culture was to transform GE into a boundaryless company. This enabled the Best Practices program which benchmarked GE both externally and internally. External benchmarking enabled the company to catch up and develop a competitive edge in the internet-based business. Because the organizational culture emphasized the need to incorporate best practices found in other industries, the GE staff was instantly able to find a parallel for its e-business initiative in the e-commerce sector by studying how Amazon took away market share from Barnes and Noble. So at the outset of executing the e-business initiative, the assumption was that competitors who were already using the internet to conduct their businesses would have the same kind of competitive advantage over GE that Amazon did over Barnes and Noble. Proceeding under that assumption, the GE team began to assess its own vulnerability against high-technology competitors by forming the dyb.com. In manning the dyb.com team, Gary Reiner emphasized that the people who worked in the team had to have three attributes. They needed to have strong marketing background, they needed to have project management skills and they were also required to have a passion for the internet. Skills and interests from all these three areas had to be coordinated in creating a technological solution that had to be mission critical. The dyb.com team began by analyzing how a hypothetical internet company could take market share away from GE and the analytical template they used was the case of Amazon.com vs. Barnes and Noble. Dyb.com was also given the task of developing preemptive measures and countermeasures for possible scenarios. In performing these tasks, the team was given cons iderable flexibility and was encouraged in out-of-the-box thinking as long as it did not break established company values.The formation of dyb.com was the critical first step which enabled GE to make a smooth migration to the new technological platform even though it was late in the game. However the efforts that the dyb.com people put in would not have the same level of energy if Welch had not constantly kept in touch with them and impressed upon them the importance of what they were doing. Top management support is critical when it comes to managing change because employees are not in a position to assess the strategic importance of managing change. Welch’s continuing support for dyb.com serves to illustrate the need for management support when it comes to business process reengineering with technological innovation as GE was doing at the time by migrating into the Internet based business. Given GE’s late arrival on the scene, it is doubtful whether the company would have made a successful transition, even with the help of first-mover GE Plastics, if Welch had not made it totally clear that successful implementation of the internet-based business was the only item on his agenda.Diffusing innovations through trustThe Chief Information Officer Gary Reiner emphasized the importance of company-wide communication as a means of diffusing innovations through all of GE’s business units. This was facilitated by the operating system calendar which scheduled a regular series of meetings between delegates from different business units where there were exchanges of ideas on best practices. The operating system calendar ensured that when Reiner started out in promoting the e-business cause, there was already a culture of trust pre-existing. This was a cumulative effect because the meetings under the operating system calendar were not standalone incidents. Each meeting in the calendar built upon the previous in terms of scope and each served to acceler ate the momentum with which initiatives were put into operation. According to this operating system, each initiative went through cycles of improvement. For example, the globalization initiative had been enriched through more than a dozen cycles. Other initiatives such as six sigma, services and e-business were in the fifth, the sixth and the third cycle respectively. These initiatives were put in operation in all business units and performance results were compared across business units during the meetings. The sharing of information that facilitated these comparisons built trust among employees from different sub-units.In diffusing the e-business innovation throughout GE, Reiner went beyond the operating system calendar to schedule additional meetings and to develop additional measurements that were more targeted towards the e-business initiative. In this respect he emphasized identification of transferable best practices which facilitated the development of peer-to-peer relations hips. Because CEOs from different business units discussed with each other the progress they were making in implementing the e-business initiatives in their own departments, all departments benefited from the shared information. It was the cross-functional interaction throughout the operating system calendar that Rainer built upon that enabled GE to diffuse all three technological innovations of e-sell, e-buy and e-make throughout the organization even though the strategic impact of all three innovations was still not clear.System Complexity and couplingGE managed system complexity and coupling well because it managed to diffuse technological innovations successfully through all twenty business units. Technological innovations are particularly difficult to integrate into existing business processes because they have to be customized towards serving the strategic focus of the company. Therefore it is well for the company incorporating technological innovations by stages as GE was doi ng to be able to tap into past experience. The management at GE made this possible by means of the operating system calendar according to which managers and employees from different business units exchanged ideas in meetings and discussion forums. The operating system calendar is an example of using coupling to manage system complexity. The coupling in this case was taking place between different business units in the form of transferable best practices. Therefore even though the information system that GE was developing was steadily growing in system complexity as it evolved from selling online to buying online to automating internal business processes online, the conversion process was efficient because lessons learned from applications in one department were periodically disseminated to the rest of the organization under the operating system calendar. In this way all the different business units were interconnected and diffusion of innovations occurred without losing their effect iveness in system complexity.As stated in the case, managers and employees at GE were not sure whether the internet was making a difference to the extent that Welch had promised them. However this was not an indication of how well the company was managing system complexity. It was simply an indication of industry trends according to which the market was not ready yet to conduct transaction online. For example, one of the conclusions from dyb.com’s studies was that an Amazon-style threat did not exist. Therefore GE clearly implemented technological innovations successfully. If they did not reach the desired targets, it was only because the company was moving ahead of the industry. That is evidence enough of the success with which GE managed system complexity in it’s ever evolving information systems.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

6 Steps to Surviving a Job as a Night Shift Nurse

6 Steps to Surviving a Job as a Night Shift Nurse Being a night shift nurse can be extremely rewarding and heroic. It can also be incredibly grueling. Before you sign up to this gig, here are a few survival tips. And for those of you with no interest in such work, read on to see some of the challenges that face these tireless heroes who do such vital, life-saving work. 1. Understand your inner clock.Your circadian clock is your internal inclination to follow a normal 24-hour cycle. It also helps to regulate many of your body processes: hormones, temperature, heart rate, etc. The more you understand about these rhythms (and how your job will mess with them), the better off you’ll be. Realize that you will naturally crave sleep between the hours of midnight and 6 a.m., and do what it takes to train your body to, well, do the opposite of what it naturally wants to do.It may not be at the ideal time every day, and you’ll likely have to schedule your sleep instead of just falling into a normal routine like everybody else yo u know, but it’s even more important for you. Get blackout curtains for your room. Use eye masks or ear plugs or white noise machines to optimize your sleep environment. Make a sleep schedule and stick to it. Make sure you get long periods of uninterrupted sleep and that your family respects these periods.2. Keeping yourself healthy is key.The healthier you are, the better prepared your body will be to survive night shifts. Keep an eye out for conditions you’re at a higher risk for than your daytime components, like insomnia, daytime drowsiness, high blood pressure, diabetes, menstrual irregularities, common colds, and weight gain. Make sure to exercise and be active- it will help you stay alert. And make sure to eat right: reach for snacks high in protein and complex sugars, rather than candy and chips. Drink plenty of water. Having a healthy home life can help reinforce all the good habits you’ll need to cultivate to stay afloat at work.3. Bond with your cowor kers.Your coworkers are like a family- even more so when you’re all working in the trenches of the night shift. It’s a much different, and often more intimate environment. Take advantage of this to really work as a team, communicating effectively, and being able to rely on each other when the going gets tough.4. Don’t overdo the caffeine.Caffeine can be your friend- it can boost your alertness just when you need it. Remember to give yourself 25 minutes or so for it to kick in. But be judicious- too much caffeine can make you jittery or affect your out-of-work sleep quality. Find a balance that works for you and doesn’t compromise your sleep.5. Schedule your home life.It’s important that you keep your home life going strong, so it’s a place of comfort and stability. This might mean having to schedule things that normal families take for granted. But it’s worth it. Make sure you’re staying in constant touch- through texts, emails , phone calls, etc. Leave post-it notes or start a bulletin board to stay connected. And make sure to have a few date nights on the books if you have a special someone.6. Know the costs.Being a night nurse is really tough. The hospital may be a bit quieter, but patients are rarely able to sleep and often are needier or more anxious at night. Your patients might even get a bit angry or disgruntled as the night progresses. You’ll also get a lot of the leftover grunt work no one in the day shift wanted to do. And if you get hungry? Forget about it. The cafeteria will long have closed.That said, if you remember to stock up on snacks and food to fuel your shift, and you can learn to adjust your inner clock (and withhold your rage at the FedEx guy or the ice cream truck), you’ll also have the benefit of an extremely important and gratifying job- and one that offers a bit more flexibility than other, more regularly scheduled gigs.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Requiring students study of islam as part of social studies Research Paper

Requiring students study of islam as part of social studies - Research Paper Example he citizen, knowing when, where and how to make well-informed and reasoned decisions for the public good in a democratic and pluralistic society (Education 4). The focus for social studies is for students to explore their culture and then expand their study to other people and lands to study about the ways that those people live and work. It can argued that for religion and culture, for instance Islam which is a minority religion, to flourish and prosper in a predominantly Western, Christian, and secular society, Islamic teachings must be introduced towards Islamizing Muslim children. Islamization means that Muslim teachings should be promoted, assimilated, and integrated with any society. Islamic teachings also provided need to be in compatibility with secular and western values than with some rigid Islamic values (Timani 2). Therefore, the paper will mainly focus on supporting the argument as to why children should study culture and religion, including Islam, as part of social studies and how it can be useful for them in the future. During children, cognitive development stages; distractions and inconsistencies and confusions of thoughts are being replaced by basic logic gradually. Children begin to make some logical decisions about problems, which involve concrete and real objects. In addition, the development of a reversible and new system of mental operations and the ability to form stable new relationships among themselves and classes begins. During this period, rules and regulations mostly serve as useful guidelines for the character and behavior of such school going children. Teachers and their Parents become serious role models for these schoolchildren, and the cultural and religious-oriented character that is shown to the children becomes a genesis of their training and inspiration. Here comes the necessity of introducing culture and religion to these children during social studies classes. Making Friends are most likely to happen between children who